Printing Colour Profile Errors

Lack of colour management is a common problem with printing.

FIGURE 1 The example shown here is a painting of 'The Rokeby Venus' by Diego Velázquez.  A postcard, poster and greeting card are compared to the digital file. All the images are different, so which version was correct?  

The three print versions above were taken into the gallery and placed next to the original painting so that they were all viewed in the same illumination. None of the printed versions matched the painting, although the poster was the closest. But even the digital file did not match. Leaving aside the question of the difference in colour temperature between the lights in the gallery, and those used to scan the digital image, the print versions should still at least have matched the digital file.